有很多研究者认为非智力因素如自我肯定，教育和文化背景、家庭支持和金融稳定和同伴都参与了学术上的成功（奥斯汀，1976；Sedlacek & Brookes，1976）非智力包括动机和人格因素，如年龄、性别与健康因素，婚姻状况；社会经济因素、学科因素如学习习惯和方法，以及个人特征，如价值观、情绪智力、自尊、自我效能感、等等。研究指出，上述因素在计算学术成功率一样的学生智力因素是非常重要的（奥斯汀，1976；比格斯，1985；僧，1998）。根据维蒙特和verloop（1999），学生的勤奋与范围可以改变他们的学习过程中满足定性高要求，在高等教育研究背景放在他们相关的。因此，建设性冲突的理论联系起来的能力，让学生认识到高层次的要求被放置在他们，感知这些要求和自己的学习过程之间的差距。Tinto的模型（阿斯塔与女，1993；力拓、1997；Tucker，1999），相比之下，更侧重于实际环境中的高等教育，可以说是对学生勤奋有关。如前所述，这些因素可能包括对学生学习和个人进步的实际支持，以及将学生融入大学和学术团体的因素。
There is an affirmation by a lot of researchers that non-intellectual factors such as self-concept, educational and cultural background, support and financial permanence of family and peer are involved with academic success (Astin, 1976; Sedlacek & Brookes,1976) Non-intellectual consist of motivational and personality factors, biographic factors such as age, gender, health and marital status; socioeconomic factors, academic factors such as habits and methods of study, as well as personal characteristics such as values, emotional intelligence, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and so on. Study has pointed out that the above factors are very important in calculating the academic success rate of students just like intellectual factors (Astin, 1976; Biggs, 1985; Monk,1998).According to Vermunt and Verloop (1999), students' diligence is associated with the range they could alter their study process to meet the qualitatively high-level requirements which are placed on them in a background of higher education study. Consequently, the theory of constructive conflicts links to the capability of students to become aware of the high-level demands being placed on them, to perceive the gap between these demands and their own study process. Tinto's model (Ashar & Skenes, 1993; Tinto, 1997; Tucker, 1999), in contrast, concentrates more on the pratical environment of higher education that could be said to be related to the students' diligence. As suggested above, these might contain factors such as practical support for student's studying and personal improvement, and combination of student into an collegiate and academic community.