Take, for instance the current Malaysian primary level curriculum. It consists of five examinable subjects, viz. Bahasa Malaysia (2), English, Maths and Science. It is clear that the emphasis here is on the basics, i.e. the elementary skills of the 3 Rs - reading, writing skills of language, and arithmetic. Rudimentary natural science is also introduced at this stage, while living skills is absent. Islamic and Moral Studies are, however, taught as non-examinable subjects to Muslims and non-Muslims respectively for spiritual and moral development. The UPSR exams are conducted as end-of-term summative assessment to gauge the efficacy of instructions throughout the school year. The foregoing reflects the fundamental curricular elements of essentialism almost to a tee. Thus it can be said that at primary level the National Philosophy of Education is practically based on the essentialist approach, in terms of subjects taught and focus on exams. Certainly, perennialism is inapplicable at this stage where the young minds are still grasping with basic learning given their lower order cognitive skills. Neither would reconstructionist ideas find relevance in their yet-to-mature thinking. The perennialist aspect only manifests itself in the delivery of Islamic/Moral Studies.