笛卡尔自己对这个问题也没有一个恰当的答案。他的沉思，我们在这门课上已经仔细研究过，向我们展示了他的许多观点。他说我们可以怀疑所有的事物，他认为心灵是不可分割的，身体是可分割的。他认为灵魂和身体或精神和身体的互动是通过松果体，这是人类大脑中的一个腺体。他说统治绝对权力的想法是如何存在于我们的脑海里的?因此他说，我们清楚地感知。他所要做的就是证明灵魂的不朽。他坚持认为随意的互动是通过松果体发生的。但这并不是一个很好的解释。同样的问题是，一个非物质的心灵如何与松果体相互作用(这显然是一个物理物质)。笛卡尔的一些学生，ef Arnold Geulincx对这个问题采用了不同的思维方式。我觉得这个解决方案非常令人满意。阿诺德认为所有这些身心互动都是上帝直接干预的结果。所以，当上帝想要的时候，这些相互作用就不会发生。这些相互作用不是由于某种机制或通过某种媒介;当有了神的旨意，它们就发生了。只有上帝知道它是如何工作的，他对这种刺激负责。人体与人性是一个非常复杂的课题。人性不容易理解。人类有不同于其他生物的现象性特征这些现象性特征使我们相信人类身体中有某种非物质的东西导致了这些现象性特征。二元论回答了一些这样的问题，并认为心灵是一个非物质实体，负责这些特征，它是一个独立于大脑的实体。但是反对二元论的一个主要的反对意见是思想和身体是如何相互作用的?物质和非物质之间的交流媒介是什么?一个令人满意的答案是，上帝高于一切。心灵和身体之间的互动依赖于上帝。也许只有他知道，而且他要对这种奇怪的交流负责。
Descartes himself did not have a proper answer to this problem. His meditations which we have elaborately studied in this course have revealed to us many of his point of views. He says that we can doubt all the things and he considers mind as indivisible and body as divisible. He was of the view that this interaction of soul and body or mind and body is through PINEAL GLAND, which is a gland in human brain. He says how the idea of a ruling absolute power exists in our minds? Thus he says that we distinctly perceive. All he was trying to do was to prove the immortality of the soul. He maintained that casual interaction is taking place through pineal gland. But this is not a very good explanation. Again the problem is same, how a non-material mind is interacting with pineal gland (which obviously is a physical matter). Some of Descartes’ students, ef Arnold Geulincx adopted a different frame of mind for this problem. And I find that solution very satisfactory. According to Arnold that all these mind-body interactions are a result of direct intervention of God. So, when God wants, these interactions happen otherwise not. These interactions are not because of a certain mechanism or through some medium; they happen and occur when there is God’s will. Only God knows how it works, he is responsible for this stimulation.Human body and human nature is a very complex subject. The human nature cannot be understood easily. There are phenomenal features of human beings which differs them from other living things and those phenomenal features have convinced us that there is something non-physical in human body which is responsible for these phenomenal features. Dualism answers some of such questions and consider mind a non-physical entity responsible for such features and it is a separate entity from brain. But a major objection to dualism is that how mind interacts with the body? What is the medium of communication between a physical and non-physical matter? And a satisfactory answer would be that God is above all. The interaction between mind and body is dependent on God. And may be only he knows and he is responsible for such bizarre communication.