了解玻璃生产的主要步骤，区分“主要”和“次要”，对于全面了解早期叙利亚玻璃生产的规模是很重要的。初级玻璃生产是玻璃制造过程的第一步，这包括收集和加热原料，形成大块的原玻璃，然后在大型窑(罐式炉)中加热。一旦这些大块被冷却，它们就会被分成易于处理的小块，有时被称为“锭”。这些原始的玻璃块将被运送到“二级”玻璃制造商那里，形成他们最终的设计。用原玻璃制作的手工制品的二次生产是一种技艺精湛的工艺。这些工匠通常需要几年的学徒期。另一个关键的区别是这些次级站点的位置。初级和次级生产通常存在地理差异。初级生产通常在离原料更近的地方进行，但也离有足够“燃料”来烧制支持大规模初级玻璃制造所需的巨大窑的地方更近。有大量的考古证据支持这些生产地点的分离。一些证据是从地中海地区的沉船中收集来的，这些沉船的船舱里有玻璃锭。二级玻璃制造商负责最终将原玻璃加工成预定的形状。在他们的贸易中使用的一些材料是“熔块”，这是磨砂玻璃与矿物添加来创造颜色。一些被使用的矿物是一种产生绿色的氧化铜，一种产生黄色/橙色的铁，一种产生蓝色的钴，最后是一种产生紫色或棕色的锰(Burke, 2019)。在玻璃制品上发现的二次玻璃制品的一些迹象是“Molis”，它表示被吹的存在，以及窑烧过程中被破坏的废料。玻璃的回收利用在这一时期也很突出(Burke, 2019)。窑炉也用于退火过程，减缓成品玻璃制品的冷却。如果玻璃冷却得太快，就容易破碎。
Understanding the major steps in glass production and drawing a distinction between the two “Primary” and “Secondary” is important to get the full picture of the size of early Syrian glass making. Primary glass production is the first step of the glass making process which involves collecting and heating raw ingredients to form large chunks of raw glass which would be heated in large kilns (Tank Furnaces). Once these chunks were cooled, they were broken into manageable pieces sometimes referred to as “Ingots.” These raw chunks of glass would then be shipped to “Secondary” glassmakers for forming into their final designs. The Secondary production of individual artifacts made from the raw glass was a craft which was highly skilled. These craftsmen often required years of apprenticeship. Another key difference was the location of these secondary sites. There were usually geographic differences in both primary and secondary production. Primary production often took place at sites which were located closer to both the raw ingredients but also close to areas with enough “Fuel” to fire the enormous kilns needed to support the large scale primary glass manufacturing. There has been substantial archeological evidence supporting the separation of these production sites. Some evidence has been collected from shipwrecks in the Mediterranian area which had glass ingots in their holds. Secondary glassmakers were responsible for finalizing the raw glass into its intended form. Some of the materials used in their trade were “frits” which were ground glass with minerals added to create colors. Some of the minerals used were a copper oxide which created a green color, iron which created a yellow/orange color, cobalt created blue colors, and finally, manganese which was used to create a purple or brown color (Burke, 2019). Some of the telltale signs of secondary glass production found on glass artifacts were the “Molis” which signified the presence of being blown, as well as wasters which were artifacts ruined during kiln firing. The recycling of glass was also prominent during this period (Burke, 2019). Kilns were also used for the annealing process which slowed the cooling of finished glass artifacts. If the glass was cooled too quickly, it was prone to breaking.