Even in developed countries, the power of the vague, exogenous processes such as globalization, Americanisation, and environmentalism have, in some cases, had distinctly negative effects on the opinions of people in certain countries. In the UK, for instance, the radical shift towards a free-market economy and the subsequent sweeping cuts in public spending brought about by the newly elected Conservative government in the 1980s was almost entirely against popular opinion. A Gallup poll stated that when asked whether they prefer the current level of spending or whether spending should increase, 47% of people in 1978 preferred the current level of spending in public administrations, while a mere 10% preferred it ten years later in 1990. Naturally, this highlights the significant importance of exogenous factors in shaping public policy. Driven by a modernisation programme designed in many ways to emulate the American system, Margaret Thatcher went against UK public opinion in her attempt to introduce free-market economics taken from the American system of limited governance and the idea expounded by Ronald Reagan that closely controlled and governed public administration was the root of the problem rather than its solution. Also, despite strong public opinion against defence spending, governments both in the US and the UK continued to increase expenditure in this field. Defence spending and its disapproval rating among the people of both the US and the UK can certainly be seen as primarily influenced by exogenous factors such as global stability and of perceived external threats to National security. Howard and McKinney (1998) comment upon the contradiction between Reagan’s rhetoric and the difficulty he had in dictating the shape and the pattern of public administration: “Reagan came to see government as the problem, not the solution. Yet he vastly expanded the military budget while failing to achieve domestic reductions in the budget. The actions created an unprecedented increase in the national debt that is a continuing source of major concern and conflict” (43). Similarly, George W. Bush’s policies reflect a similar trend of low taxation and high spending on defence and budgetary issues. While public opinion regarding taxation levels, and endogenous forms of checks and balances that fuel the problem of delivering tax cuts while keeping the bureaucracy intact, it is also the stubbornness of the structure of public administration to change, coupled by the resistance from exogenous factors such as global economics, rogue states and relationships to foreign policy that make the rhetoric of reducing public administration difficult to achieve in reality.